Composite I-b Speeches (1991-January 2013)
Items of Interest
From 1991 to January of 2013, I attended some 55 speeches. Rather than review each speech separately and comment on the same statements over and over, I decided to combine these speeches into a “Composite speech.”
I tried to eliminate duplicate statements. Related statements, separated by hyphens, are combined into paragraphs. I added some words to keep the original meanings of these statements. In some cases, I suspect the statement is wrong but cannot prove this at this time. These statements are identified with my statement, “Is this correct?”
The Composite Speech is divided into 2 parts. The 1st part contains statements on events prior to the Dakota War. The 2nd part contains statements starting with the Dakota War.
- Unbalanced – Overwhelmingly, the speakers talked about the Dakota people after the war and their recovery. Few discussed the whites after the war and their recovery.
- Unbalanced – No one speaks for all white people just as no one speaks for all Dakota people. Among the Dakota as among the whites, there is a wide range of opinions and feelings about the Dakota War of 1862.
Most Objectionable Statements
The term “war” implies all Dakota wanted war. The north branch of Dakota did not support the war. Rebellion is the more proper term. – The war started on Aug 17. – The U.S. Dakota War was not a surprise. – There were 7500 Dakota in Minnesota when the war started. – The majority of the Dakota men went to war. – Dakota warriors only fought soldiers, not whole communities.
—Incorrect – I disagree that “war” implies all Dakota wanted war. “Rebellion” implies they were subservient to the U.S.
—Incorrect – Rather than saying the north branch of Dakota did not support the war, I would say a large majority of the Sisseton and Wahpeton Dakota did not support the war.
—Incorrect – The war started on August 18 when Dakota attacked the Lower Sioux Agency after the decision for war was made.
—Incorrect – The war came as a surprise to most of the people on both sides.
—Incorrect – No one knows for sure how many Dakota were in Minnesota when the war started. In the 1861 annuity census there were about 6300 Dakota. 7500 is too high.
—Incorrect – The majority of the Dakota men opposed war, but many were forced to join against the whites.
—Incorrect – Dakota warriors attacked the town of New Ulm twice.
Little Crow was not a top chief. – Little Crow said let’s kill them all. – Standing Buffalo said to Little Crow, if you come near us we will kill you all.
—Incorrect – Little Crow was elected the overall chief of the Dakota war effort.
—Is this correct that Little Crow said let’s kill them all? Little Crow told his warriors to make war in the manner of the whites. In other words don’t kill women and children.
—Is this correct that Standing Buffalo threatened to kill them all.
On August 20, John Otherday led a party to St. Paul. – Shows photo of the mission party and states that on the 22nd, John Otherday led people away from the Upper Agency. – The mission party came from the Hazelwood Mission.
—Incorrect – Otherday’s group left the Upper Agency on the morning of August 19. He brought them to Hutchinson where they scattered to various places.
—Incorrect – The mission party was separate from John Otherday’s party.
—Incorrect – The mission party contained members of both missions and included others.
Map showing Dakota War Battle Sites
—Incorrect – The Battles of Fort Abercrombie and Acton are not shown.
Sibley cooperated with Little Crow by dragging his heels. Sibley thought time was on his side.
—Incorrect – Sibley did not cooperate with Little Crow. Sibley waited for men and supplies. He moved upriver slowly because he was concerned about the hostages held by Little Crow.
The Dakota launched an attack on the Lower Sioux Agency. – Thirty people were killed in the first hour at the Lower Sioux Agency.
—Incorrect – A faction of the Dakota attacked the Agency. Thirteen were killed.
Captain Marsh didn’t have any choice but to go on to Redwood Ferry. – Andrew Quinn was the U.S. Army interpreter.
—Incorrect – Captain Marsh could have heeded the warnings of the refugees and turned back to Fort Ridgely.
—Incorrect – The U.S. Army interpreter was Peter Quinn.
Godfrey was not a nice man and probably killed many in Milford. – The Dakota priority was to get food. They didn’t care if settlers were killed. – Bodies of whites were mutilated; bodies were beheaded; and babies were nailed to burning trees. The stories in the newspapers were fabricated. – Dakota warriors killed men and took away women and children.
—Incorrect – We do not know for sure if Godfrey was voluntary or if he was forced to join the hostile Indians. See Bachman, Northern Slave Black Dakota.
—Incorrect – The Dakota did not have to kill people to obtain food.
—Incorrect – Newspapers did embellish the atrocities. However, this statement gives the impression that no atrocities were committed. See Michno, Dakota Dawn.
—Incorrect – The majority of those killed were women and children. See Bachman, Northern Slave Black Dakota.
By August 20, the war spread throughout Minnesota. – The Dakota were really in control of the State. – The Minnesota River was the southern border of the war. – After Little Crow moved to the Upper Agency area, they planned 2 thrusts: Little Crow to Hutchinson and others to loot New Ulm. They planned to converge on Fort Ridgely. – Other Dakota attacked Fort Abercrombie.
—Incorrect – The war never did spread throughout Minnesota.
—Incorrect – The Dakota never were in control of the State.
—Incorrect – The war did spread south of the Minnesota River.
—Incorrect – Sibley and his army had arrived at Fort Ridgely. The Dakota would not have attacked Fort Ridgely a 3rd time with the additional soldiers there.
—Incorrect – More likely the Yankton and or the Yanktonais attacked Fort Abercrombie. A few Dakota may have been there.
The Dakota believed New Ulm was on their land. – On August 19, Indian leaders decided to attack New Ulm before Fort Ridgely because they hated the Germans. – The 1st Battle of New Ulm was very close. There were 800 Dakota versus 500 whites in the 2nd Battle of New Ulm. If the Indians got through, the whites were going to move their women and children to a building and blow it up.
—Incorrect – It is doubtful that many Dakota believed New Ulm was on their land.
—Incorrect – I do not find that the Dakota hated the Germans. By 1860, Dakota Indians were often in New Ulm passing through, camping or trading with local merchants. See LaBatte, The New Ulm Pioneer and the Indians. They attacked New Ulm because they thought New Ulm would be easier to defeat than Fort Ridgely.
—Incorrect – I do not find that the 1st Battle of New Ulm was close at all.
—Incorrect – There were about 650 Dakota and 225 defenders in the 2nd Battle of New Ulm.
—Incorrect – The women and children were moved to the building before the battle started.
At Fort Ridgely, Captain Marsh was sent upriver to Redwood River. – Lieutenant Gere recalled Lieutenant Sheehan and Galbraith and the Renville Rangers.
—Incorrect – Captain Marsh made the decision to go overland upriver to the Lower Sioux Agency. He decided to cross at Redwood Ferry.
—Incorrect – Marsh recalled Sheehan and Galbraith before leaving Fort Ridgely.
The battles of Fort Ridgely are pretty well explained on the trail signs. – During the later part of August 19, 100 men came into Fort Ridgely. – At Fort Ridgely, there weren’t many fighters among the refugees. – The defenders of Fort Ridgely had about 150 men. – The Battle of Fort Ridgely was fought on August 21 and 22. – 800 attacked Fort Ridgely in the first battle. – In the first battle, the Dakota sneaked up the northeast ravine. – In the 1st battle, they had cannons on all 4 corners. – Rain caused the first battle to end. – During the 2nd battle, Sergeant John Jones heated a cannon ball and shot it into the barracks. – Sibley didn’t get to Fort Ridgely very fast; then he hesitated.
—Incorrect – The battles of Fort Ridgely are not well explained on the trail signs.
—Incorrect – About 50 men under Lt. Sheehan arrived in the morning of August 19.
—Incorrect – They recruited about 25 men from the refugees. Three had cannon experience.
—Incorrect – In all there were about 180 defenders at Fort Ridgely.
—Incorrect – The 2 battles were fought on August 20 and August 22.
—Incorrect – An estimated 400 Dakota attacked in the 1st battle.
—Incorrect – In the 1st battle, the Dakota did more than sneak up the northeast ravine.
—Incorrect – In the 1st battle, they had only 3 cannons in action.
—Incorrect – Rain did not end the first battle; darkness did.
—Incorrect – John Jones heated 2 cannon balls and shot them into the large barn.
—Disrespectful – Sibley waited until he had enough equipment, arms, ammunition and trained men to go against the Dakota.
The Battle of Birch Coulee was September 3. – The Dakota lost the Battle of Birch Coulee in the first 2 minutes because they didn’t charge into the soldiers’ camp. – Nathan Myrick was there. He had just buried his brother. – Soldiers at Fort Ridgely felt the vibrations of guns from Birch Coulee.
—Incorrect – The Battle of Birch Coulee started on September 2 and ended on September 3.
—Incorrect – In terms of deaths, wounded and horses killed, the Dakota won the battle.
—Incorrect – Nathan Myrick was not in the Battle of Birch Coulee. He did not bury his brother’s body until he returned to St. Paul.
—Incorrect – Soldiers at Fort Ridgely heard the shots from Birch Coulee.
There were 800 Dakota in the Battle of Wood Lake.
—Incorrect – According to a count taken before the battle, there were 738 Dakota. Sibley estimated that 1/3 of these were forced to be there.
About 1000 Indians surrendered at Camp Release. – A handful of Christian men confronted the hostile Dakota to turn over their prisoners. – Sibley successfully secured the release of the hostages. – There were 239 white and mixed-blood hostages. – Little Crow said to kill the hostages. His followers refused and turned them over to Little Paul. – After Wood Lake, Little Paul refused to allow Little Crow flee through their land with hostages. – The Dakota Indians were told several times that if they surrendered, under a white flag they would not be harmed. – The Indians were told to come into Camp Release to get their annuities. They were disarmed and put into chains. – At Camp Release, Sibley took into custody all of the Dakota he could get his hands on. – Camp Release is where they were caught and tried.
—Incorrect – The eventual number of Dakota at Camp Release was about 2,000. Many did not surrender. They had done nothing wrong. They waited for Sibley to arrive.
—Incorrect – Both Christians and non-Christians confronted the hostile Dakota to turn over their prisoners.
—Incorrect – The friendly Dakota secured the release of the hostages with Sibley’s help.
—Incorrect – Samuel Brown said there were 270 hostages. See Through Dakota Eyes.
—Incorrect – I do not find that Little Crow said to kill the hostages. Some of his followers wanted to take back the hostages from the friendly Indians. Little Crow said no.
—Incorrect – Many friendly Dakota helped in rescuing the hostages, not just Little Paul.
—Incorrect – Little Paul did not prevent Little Crow from fleeing with hostages.
—Incorrect – Sibley promised that only those who killed civilians would be punished. Some say Sibley broke his promise. But, in saying this Sibley saved many Dakota and white lives.
—Incorrect – The Indians were told to come into the Upper Sioux Agency to get their annuities. Some say this was a deceitful. But, some of the most hostile Dakota were taken without bloodshed. Many lives were saved.
—Unbalanced – Dakota also were deceitful in killing the white settlers.
—Incorrect – Many friendly Dakota were not taken into custody at Camp Release. Others were released when it was learned they had not participated in the war.
—Incorrect – They were not all caught or tried at Camp Release.
25-50 Dakota were killed during the war. – 500 whites and 60 Indians were killed during the war. – 29 Dakota and 466 whites (76 soldiers) were killed during the war. – About 500 whites were killed during the war. Twice as many Indians were killed. – Does it matter how many were killed? This is not a competition for who had the most losses. This is not a competition for who has the most facts. Does it matter if Dakota People were hostile or friendly?
—Incorrect – By Curt Dahlin’s estimate, more than 650 whites were killed during the war. By my estimate about 145 Dakota were killed during the war.
—Incorrect – About 4 times as many whites were killed during the war as Dakota.
—Disrespectful – It does matter how many were killed. This is important to know how uneven the war was to the innocent whites. It is important to descendants of all who were killed.
—Disrespectful – Calling this a competition is disrespectful to the descendants of the victims.
—Disrespectful – Asking if it matters whether Dakota were hostile or friendly is disrespectful to their descendants.
I use the term “trials” loosely. – Instead of going after Little Crow, Sibley wanted to do the trials right away. – Chaska was tried first. Godfrey was tried second. Godfrey had Indian blood. – The LaBathe cabin at the Lower Agency was a jail. – Trials were completed in the summer kitchen of Francois LaBathe. He was killed there. – No council was given to Dakota during trials. – Had there been real trials maybe 6 would have been sentenced.
—Unbalanced – If the white trials are criticized in any way, we have look at the Dakota trial system. There wasn’t one.
—Incorrect – Sibley lacked horses. He did send some cavalry into the field.
—Incorrect – Godfrey was tried first. Godfrey did not have any Indian blood.
—Incorrect – The LaBathe cabin was not a jail.
—Incorrect – There were Dakota trials at Fort Snelling and Winnebago trials at Mankato. See Bachman, Northern Slave Black Dakota.
—Incorrect – He was not killed there. He was killed in or near his store.
—Incorrect – It was not required that council be given to the Dakota.
—Incorrect – According to Bachman, Northern Slave Black Dakota, many of those hanged at Mankato would be found guilty in today’s courts.
The Dakota prisoners were force-marched to Mankato through New Ulm. – There was a conspiracy in New Ulm to kill all the prisoners. The wagon train was diverted to the prairie west of New Ulm for this reason. – The condemned were moved to a concentration camp at Camp Lincoln in Mankato. – Those taken to Mankato were taken through Henderson.
—Incorrect – They were force-marched around New Ulm.
—Incorrect – It cannot be proven there was a conspiracy in New Ulm. Sibley chose the route out on the prairie. Had there been a conspiracy, the attempt would have been made to divert Sibley through town where the soldiers could not maneuver as easily as out on the prairie.
—Incorrect – Camp Lincoln was not a concentration camp.
—Incorrect – Those taken to Mankato did not go through Henderson.
Lincoln arbitrarily said 40 were enough to hang. – Lincoln did not want to make this decision on who should be hanged. He hoped Pope and Sibley would make the decision to hang them all. – Advisors tell Lincoln he must hang more. Lincoln said “I will not hang men for votes.” – Lincoln reviewed the trials. – Lincoln believed he would lose the next election if he didn’t hang all of the Indians. – Lincoln approved 38 because his administration did not have time to analyze trials. – Many of the 38 were not guilty. – The hanging was delayed because there was not enough rope in Mankato – This was the largest mass execution in U.S. History.
—Incorrect – Lincoln did not arbitrarily pick 40. See Bachman, Northern Slave Black Dakota for this and the following comments on this paragraph.
—Incorrect – Lincoln did not hope that Pope and Sibley would hang them all.
—Incorrect – Lincoln was told later that he lost votes because he had not hanged more.
—Incorrect – Lincoln did not review the trials. He had others do this.
—Incorrect – Lincoln did not believe he would lose the next election.
—Incorrect – Lincoln did not approve 38 for lack of time.
—Incorrect – Many of the 38 were guilty by today’s standards.
—Incorrect – While there may not have been enough rope, the trials were delayed in order to get more U.S. soldiers to Mankato to help maintain order.
—Incorrect – This was the largest simultaneous mass hanging in U.S. history.
On November 6, the Dakota were force-marched from the Lower Sioux Agency to Fort Snelling. – They crossed the Minnesota River at Redwood Ferry. – Many died on this march. No one is concerned about the Indians that died. – Elders, women and children were force-marched to Fort Snelling; 150 miles over 7 days. – Those taken to Fort Snelling went through New Ulm. – Dozens of Dakota grandmothers were killed on the 150 mile forced-march to the concentration camp at Fort Snelling.
—Incorrect – It is not known which day they left the Lower Sioux Agency.
—Incorrect – They were not force-marched to Fort Snelling.
—Incorrect – It is not known where they crossed the Minnesota River.
—Incorrect – There were 2 known deaths.
—Incorrect – The missionaries and many others were concerned cared about the Indians.
—Incorrect – There were also younger men in the group taken to Fort Snelling. The distance between Lower Sioux Agency and Fort Snelling was about 100 miles.
—Incorrect – Those taken to Fort Snelling did not go through New Ulm.
—Incorrect – This statement that dozens of Dakota grandmothers died is a recent embellishment to this history. This history is sad enough. It does need to be embellished.
—Incorrect – The Fort Snelling internment camp was not a concentration camp.
2,000 were put into the Fort Snelling concentration camp. – The walls at Fort Snelling kept Dakota in and whites out. – The Indians at Fort Snelling had little provisions and were getting sick. – Dakota people were held in prison camps without adequate food and shelter. – Most of those at Fort Snelling were Upper Sioux. – 130 died at Fort Snelling. – 200 died. – More than 200 died. – 400 died. – 300 died of smallpox. – There was no place to bury their dead so they buried them under their tipis.
—Incorrect – About 1700 were put into the Fort Snelling internment camp.
—Incorrect – The walls protected the Dakota from the angry whites.
—Incorrect – The Dakota had sufficient provisions. They were getting sick from measles and typhoid, as were nearby whites.
—Incorrect – The Dakota had sufficient food and they had shelter.
—Incorrect – Upper Sioux were less than 20% of the Fort Snelling population.
—Incorrect – Official records say that 102 died at Fort Snelling.
—Incorrect – There were no deaths by smallpox reported.
—Incorrect – Some buried their dead under their tipis. Other dead were buried at St. Peters Catholic Church and at the Pond Mission.
In 1863, all of the Dakota and Winnebago were removed from Minnesota. – Dakota women, children and a few old men were shipped out of the state.
—Incorrect – All of the Dakota were not removed from Minnesota.
—Incorrect – There were also young Dakota men in this group moved out of state.
After the hangings, the remaining prisoners at Mankato were taken to Davenport. – Of the 303 sent to Davenport, 126 died. – In the spring of 1863, the remaining men at Mankato were removed to Davenport where 120 died. – The Davenport Dakota prison camp was set up to cause people to die. – 45 died at Davenport. – At Davenport, the army was convinced the Dakota had been convicted wrongly and released them early.
—Incorrect – Some of those from Mankato were dropped off at Fort Snelling.
—Incorrect – 61 died at Davenport – See Bachman, Northern Slave Black Dakota.
—Incorrect – If they wanted people to die at Davenport, they would have killed them.
—Incorrect – The President released those at Davenport.
300 children died the first day at Crow Creek.
—Incorrect – 300 children did not die the first day.
About 200 Dakota were exempt from removal. – Some Dakota were moved from Fort Snelling to Faribault. They stayed in Minnesota all their lives. – The Indians were removed and the army went out and killed Indians right and left. – Dakota men took scouting jobs for the U.S. Army because they were unemployed. – The Dakota who remained in Minnesota had no legal status.
—What does this mean that they were exempt from removal?
—Incorrect – Some at Faribault chose to go to the Santee Reservation in Nebraska.
—Incorrect – The army did not go out and kill Indians right and left.
—Incorrect – Dakota men took scouting jobs to help the army catch the hostile Dakota.
—Incorrect – Some Dakota who married into the white population did have legal status. The mixed-bloods living among the whites had legal status.
One-fourth of the Dakota died of starvation after the Dakota War. – We were targeted for extermination. – Americans called for extermination of all Indians. – Bishop Whipple played a greater role in saving the Indians.
—Incorrect – That 1/4 died of starvation is an opinion that would be impossible to prove.
—Incorrect – If the Dakota were targeted for extermination, many more would have been killed.
—Incorrect – If no one cared in Washington, many more would have been killed.
—Incorrect – Not all Americans called for extermination of all Indians.
—Incorrect – Missionaries Stephen Riggs and Thomas Williamson also played significant roles.
Ramsey said the Sioux must be exterminated. Ramsey was the architect of Minnesota’s genocide policy. – The treaties were abrogated. The Dakota got nothing for their land. Bounties were placed on Dakota scalps. This was heinous and barbaric. What kind of people do this? The State offered a $500 bounty on Little Crow. Little Crow was killed for the bounty. – Wowinape was with his father when “he was killed and butchered”
—Disrespectful – Ramsey was representing the popular opinion of the citizens.
—Incorrect – Minnesota had nothing to say about what happened to the Dakota. This was the responsibility of the U.S.
—Incorrect – The U.S. abrogated the treaties because the Dakota went to war.
—Incorrect – While the Dakota got nothing, Dakota descendants were paid in the 1970s.
—Unbalanced – Bounties were also offered for white scalps by the Lower Sioux soldiers’ lodge during the war. Was this heinous and barbaric also?
—Incorrect – Bounties were not being offered when Little Crow was killed.
—Incorrect – When Little Crow was killed, he was not butchered.
Sibley and Ramsey became rich and they went into politics.
—Incorrect – Sibley at best broke even. Both men were already in politics.
Colonization took away the Dakota way of being and diminished their status. – Indian children were forced to go to Indian schools. – There were laws against speaking the Dakota language. They did everything they could to stamp out the language. – Santee was the only school that taught children in Dakota language.
—Incorrect – I doubt that the Christian and farmer Dakota would agree that colonization took away their way of being and diminished their status.
—Incorrect – I have yet to find a case where an Indian child was removed from a good home and sent to a boarding school against their parents’ wishes.
—Is this correct that there were laws against speaking the language? Were these Federal laws?
—Incorrect – On the Lake Traverse Reservation in the 1880s, missionaries sought to keep the Dakota language in their schools and they were successful.
The Dawes Act was the most terrible thing – It allotted Dakota on reservations and made reservations open to white settlement.
—Incorrect – On the Lake Traverse Reservation, after the residents were allotted land, the residents voted to sell the remaining land and open their reservation to white settlers.
Loyal Mdewakanton were given back their own homeland in Minnesota.
—Incorrect – Some like Andrew Goodthunder bought land. Later, a very small portion of their original land was set aside for the Lower Sioux Community.
In 1934, Indians could practice their religion. – Finally in 1978, the US said we could practice our religion without fear of being arrested. Our children lost out because our freedom had been denied.
—Incorrect – I believe they got the right to vote in 1934.
—Incorrect – I doubt that anyone was arrested prior to 1978 for practicing their religion.
Because we didn’t change, they had the right to destroy us. People are working very hard at that still.
—Incorrect – There were Indians killed because they used violence to resist change.
—Is this correct that people are still working very hard to destroy the Indians today?
The Dakota remember the mistreatment, hanging and mass exile from the state. The painful experience of being uprooted and removed still exists today.
—For some, it still exists, but for many, it is in the past.
The monuments are all dedicated to the whites. The Dakota were powerless to erect their own monuments.
—Incorrect – The “Friendly Indian” monument in Morton was dedicated to Dakota who save lives during the Dakota War.
—Incorrect – I know of no attempt by Dakota people to erect monuments that was denied. Most recently, monuments have been erected in Mankato to remember Dakota victims of the Dakota war, while no monuments have been erected to remember white victims.
The whites stole our land and it is time to pay. It is wrong to steal a country and deny it. And to not pay for it is criminal.
—Unbalanced – The Dakota killed members of other tribes and took their land. They did not write treaties. They did not pay for this land.
Most of us still live in exile.
—Most choose to live outside of Minnesota. Nothing prevents them from returning.
The Dakota commemorative marches are on the same route as our ancestors took in 1862.
—Incorrect – The march to Fort Snelling is more than 95% off the original route. See Bakeman and Richardson, Trails of Tears: Minnesota’s Dakota Indian Exile Begins.
There has been 150 years of written history. History books preserve the history of the whites. They blame the Indians for everything. Up to now this has been a one-sided story. This is the 1st chance the Dakota have had to express our history. We need to engage in truth-telling. Who did what to whom? We are only beginning to come to terms with the causes of the Dakota War. In the past this has been omitted from the Master Narrative.
—Incorrect – These are recurring themes: There has been 150 years of white history. Whites have written the history books. The truth has not been told. I disagree. Over the past 150 years much Dakota history has been written and recorded. See Anderson and Woolworth, Through Dakota Eyes for an example.
—Incorrect – The claim that Dakota people know the truth is incorrect. Many of the incorrect statements in this review were made by Dakota speakers.
—Incorrect – The causes of the Dakota War have been well-defined by first person accounts from Dakota and whites.
—Unbalanced – New people are learning about this history every day. No one’s history should be excluded. This history must be as accurate, as balanced and as respectful as possible for all groups that were involved.
Dakota and white people still hold animosities about the Dakota War. There is an elusive reconciliation. Native Americans began telling their own history. They decided it was time to begin the difficult process of reconciliation. “White reconciliation” means you don’t have to do anything. Reconciliation can’t happen until the whites admit what they did. Reconciliation is truth-telling and a return of land to the Dakota. Before healing and reconciliation can happen, we need truth-telling. We need to acknowledge the genocide, ethnic cleansing, forced marches and concentration camps.
—Incorrect – I know of no white people who still hold animosities.
—Incorrect – Reconciliation is not possible, because it means too many different things to many people. To this person, it means reparations, which will never happen.
—Unbalanced – Should the Dakota pay reparations for the land they took from other tribes? Should they admit they killed other people and took their land? Should they apologize for the many Indian and white people that they killed?
—This is an attempt at laying a guilt-trip on the whites. Some say, “We are still healing; this is what you must do to ease our pain.”
—Unbalanced – If the whites committed genocide, ethnic cleansing, forced marches and made concentration camps in 1862, then the Dakota did also. Traditional Dakota warfare was genocidal in nature.
Whites should recognize that their Minnesota ancestors acted in ways similar to Hitler. Hitler admired what this country and Minnesota did to the Indians. Hitler said to his inner circle several times that he admired the efficiency of the U.S. genocide against Native Americans. Heinous and barbaric genocide was perpetuated by the U.S. government on the Dakota. The concentration camp philosophy started in Minnesota.
—Incorrect – This is not a valid reference to Hitler. See my essay, “Accuracy, Balance and Respect.” The reference to Hitler is hearsay; an opinion; a comment made that has no footnote.